Zarya - Soviet, Russian and International Spaceflight
carousel image
 
Satellite Radio Frequencies


Tyneside, UK
2020 Aug 11
Tuesday, Day 224

Maintained by:




















Gonets D-1 Transmissions

Gonets is a business-orientated store-dump communications system that grew out of the military/government Strela programme. Strela itself had been operating since the early 1960s in support of the military, the intelligence services and the Soviet government.

Gonets Model2009 early-March, a reasonably comprehensive list of transmitting frequencies was derived from observations in the UK and the Netherlands. The conclusion is that eight of the ten Gonets satellites in orbit were transmitting. Interestingly, Reshetnev, the satellite manufacturer, states on it web site that only six satellites were operational at the time. Note - the photograph on the right is a Gonets-M, hence three rather than the two aerials of Gonets D-1.

Identification of individual satellites is difficult, particularly when several are above the horizon at the same time.

Thanks are due to Ary Boender and Hans Oeben for their assistance in this piece of work on both the Strela-3 and Gonets-D1 satellites.


Rokot Launch - 2010 September 8

This launch carried a Strela-3, a Strela-3M and a Gonets-M into orbit and created a small puzzle. The Strela-3 was immediately identifiable because the object by NORAD as 2010-043B/37153 was found to be transmitting at the standard Strela-3 frequencies of 244.512 MHz and 261.035 MHz.

The other two objects, 2010-043A/37152 and 2010-043C/37154 were initially reported by an observer in northern England as transmitting data at 245.0 MHz (subsequently measured as 244.999 MHz). A search by me for the Message Signal uncovered transmisions from both satellites at 388.6875 MHz.

This poses the question of why the Gonets-M and the Strela-3M seem to use the same frequencies. Based on their predecessors, Gonets D-1 and Strela-3, they would be expected to have thir own discreet pairings. One possible explanation is that the store/forward message systems have converged and that Gonets-M is being made available to commercial businesses while Strela-3M is still reserved for military/government but with the Strela-3M users having access to Gonets-M also.

After a few months, the transmissions disappeared as the satellites presumably switched to operational frequencies (as yet unreported), strengthening the convergence idea. The 245/388 MHz MHz channels may be for testing purposes with the Gonets-M and Strela-3M using similar systems.


Another Store-Dump System

2012 August, a short analysis of transmissions at 400.180 MHz showed them to be store-dump type trigger signals emitted every 16 seconds from the classified American satellite USA 217.


Freq (MHz) Satellite Transmission Notes
245.157
Gonets
D1-1
1996-009A
23787
Message Signal every 60s, silent when receiving data message from ground Store and Forward communications: Stored messages are transmitted at another frequency in the 240-260 MHz band
262.913
Gonets
D1-1
1996-009A
23787
AM data sidebands (2.7, 5.4 and 8.1 kHz) transmitted in sub-second bursts Store and Forward communications: Trigger pulse transmitted 49s after each minute with activity increasing over eastern Europe - Used 264.750 MHz in the past - Identified by Ivan Artner 2005 Oct/Nov
263.086
Gonets
D1-1
1996-009A
23787
Data transmission as messages are forwarded Store and Forward communications: Has been reported on other frequencies in the past - entry updated 2009 Mar 8.

Message Signal at 261.035 MHz.
264.750
Gonets
D1-1
1996-009A
23787
Data transmission as messages are forwarded Store and Forward communications: Extended transmitter activity when over eastern Europe - No longer active - See 262.913 MHz
245.157
Gonets
D1-2
1996-009B
23788
Message Signal every 60s, silent when receiving data message from ground Store and Forward communications: Stored messages are transmitted at another frequency in the 240-260 MHz band
264.900
Gonets
D1-2
1996-009B
23788
AM data sidebands (2.7, 5.4 and 8.1 kHz) transmitted in sub-second bursts Store and Forward communications: Trigger pulse transmitted at one minute intervals and then silence - Extended transmitter activity when over eastern Europe - Trigger at 33s after the minute (2002 July) - No longer active - see 265.0625 MHz
265.059
Gonets
D1-2
1996-009B
23788
Data transmission as messages are forwarded Store and Forward communications: Has been reported on other frequencies in the past - entry updated 2009 Mar 8.

Message Signal at 261.035 MHz.
265.063
Gonets
D1-2
1996-009B
23788
AM data sidebands (2.7, 5.4 and 8.1 kHz) transmitted in sub-second bursts Store and Forward communications: Trigger pulse transmitted 11s after each minute with activity increasing over eastern Europe - Used 264.750 MHz in the past - Identified by Ivan Artner 2005 Oct/Nov
264.600
Gonets
D1-3
1996-009C
23789
AM data sidebands (2.7, 5.4 and 8.1 kHz) transmitted in sub-second bursts Store and Forward communications: Trigger pulse transmitted 27s after each minute with activity increasing over eastern Europe - No longer active? - see 265.1375 MHz
265.137
Gonets
D1-3
1996-009C
23789
Data transmission as messages are forwarded Store and Forward communications: Has been reported on other frequencies in the past - entry updated 2009 Mar 13.

May now be silent, no Message Signal detected 2009 Sept.
265.138
Gonets
D1-3
1996-009C
23789
FM - mutiple sideband, 0.5s trigger signal every minute plus occasional data bursts Store and Forward communications: Trigger pulse transmitted 25s after each minute with activity increasing over eastern Europe - Used 264.600 MHz in the past - Identified by Ivan Artner 2005 Oct/Nov - inactive at 2009 Mar 8
245.157
Gonets
D1-4
1997-006D
24728
Message Signal every 60s, silent when receiving data message from ground Store and Forward communications: Stored messages are transmitted at another frequency in the 240-260 MHz band
263.090
Gonets
D1-4
1997-006D
24728
AM data sidebands (2.7, 5.4 and 8.1 kHz) transmitted in sub-second bursts Store and Forward communications: Trigger pulse transmitted 5s after each minute with activity increasing over eastern Europe - Identified by Ivan Artner 2005 Oct/Nov
264.750
Gonets
D1-4
1997-006D
24728
Data transmission as messages are forwarded Store and Forward communications: Has been reported on other frequencies in the past - entry updated 2009 Mar 8.

Message Signal at 261.035 MHz.
245.157
Gonets
D1-5
1997-006E
24729
Message Signal every 60s, silent when receiving data message from ground Store and Forward communications: Stored messages are transmitted at another frequency in the 240-260 MHz band
264.400
Gonets
D1-5
1997-006E
24729
AM data sidebands (2.7, 5.4 and 8.1 kHz) transmitted in sub-second bursts Store and Forward communications: Trigger pulse transmitted 39s after each minute with activity increasing over eastern Europe - Identified by Ivan Artner 2005 Oct/Nov
264.400
Gonets
D1-5
1997-006E
24729
Data transmission as messages are forwarded Store and Forward communications: Has been reported on other frequencies in the past - entry updated 2009 Mar 8.

Message Signal at 261.035 MHz.
245.157
Gonets
D1-6
1997
24730
Message Signal every 60s, silent when receiving data message from ground Store and Forward communications: Stored messages are transmitted at another frequency in the 240-260 MHz band
262.910
Gonets
D1-6
1997
24730
Data transmission as messages are forwarded Store and Forward communications: Has been reported on other frequencies in the past - entry updated 2009 Mar 8.

Message Signal at 261.035 MHz.
264.900
Gonets
D1-6
1997
24730
AM data sidebands (2.7, 5.4 and 8.1 kHz) transmitted in sub-second bursts Store and Forward communications: Trigger pulse transmitted 58s after each minute with activity increasing over eastern Europe - Discovered by Paul Marsh and Ivan Artner 2005 Oct/Nov
245.157
Cosmos
2386
2001-058C
27057
Message Signal every 60s, silent when receiving data message from ground Store and Forward communications: Stored messages are transmitted at another frequency in the 240-260 MHz band
262.910
Cosmos
2386
2001-058C
27057
Data transmission as messages are forwarded Store and Forward communications: This is a Gonets-D1 even though listed elsewhere as Strela-3. There was a NORAD name mix-up with Gonets D1-8. Has been reported on other frequencies in the past - entry updated 2009 Mar 8.
245.157
Gonets
D1-7
2001-058D
27058
Message Signal every 60s, silent when receiving data message from ground Store and Forward communications: Stored messages are transmitted at another frequency in the 240-260 MHz band
262.910
Gonets
D1-7
2001-058D
27058
Data transmission as messages are forwarded Store and Forward communications: Has been reported on other frequencies in the past - entry updated 2009 Mar 8.
262.913
Gonets
D1-7
2001-058D
27058
AM data sidebands (2.7, 5.4 and 8.1 kHz) transmitted in sub-second bursts Store and Forward communications: Trigger pulse transmitted 42s after each minute with activity increasing over eastern Europe - Identified by Ivan Artner 2005 Oct/Nov
244.512
Gonets
D1-8
2001-058E
27059
Message Signal every 60s, silent when receiving data message from ground Store and Forward communications: Stored messages are transmitted at 261.035 MHz.

This is a Stela-3 even though listed elsewhere as Gonets-D1. There was a NORAD name mix-up with Cosmos 2386.
261.035
Gonets
D1-8
2001-058E
27059
Data transmission as messages are forwarded Store and Forward communications: Message Signal at 244.512 MHz.

This is a Strela-3 even though listed elsewhere as Gonets-D1. There was a NORAD name mix-up with Cosmos 2386.
245.157
Gonets
D1-9
2001
27060
Message Signal every 60s, silent when receiving data message from ground Store and Forward communications: Stored messages are transmitted at another frequency in the 240-260 MHz band
262.910
Gonets
D1-9
2001
27060
Data transmission as messages are forwarded Store and Forward communications: Frequency is changed occasionally - entry updated 2009 Mar 8.

Message Signal at 261.035 MHz.
264.788
Gonets
D1-9
2001
27060
AM data sidebands (2.7, 5.4 and 8.1 kHz) transmitted in sub-second bursts Store and Forward communications: Trigger pulse transmitted 9s after each minute with activity increasing over eastern Europe - Identified by Ivan Artner 2005 Oct/Nov
244.999
Gonets M-2
2010-043A
37152
Data transmission as messages are forwarded Store and Forward communications: Message Signal at 388.688 MHz.
388.688
Gonets M-2
2010-043A
37152
Message Signal every 60s, silent when receiving data message from ground Store and Forward communications: Stored messages are transmitted at 244.999 MHz.
388.688
Gonets M-3
2012-041B
38734
Message Signal every 60s or 120s depending on the operating mode, silent when receiving data message from ground. Store and Forward communications: Stored messages are transmitted at 244.999 MHz.
388.688
Gonets M-4
2012-041D
38736
Message Signal every 60s or 120s depending on the operating mode, silent when receiving data message from ground. Store and Forward communications: Stored messages are transmitted at 244.999 MHz.



Page Date: 2011 Jun 6
Updated: 2012 Aug 17

Copyright © Robert Christy, all rights reserved
Reproduction of this web page or any of its content without permission from zarya.info is prohibited